Investigating Iraqi Kurdistan Region Lecturers’ Perceptions on the Effects and Usage of Written Corrective Feedback in EFL Students’ Writing`


  • Chnur Mahmud Fatah Presidency of Garmian University- University of Garmian- Kurdistan, Iraq



written corrective feedback, lecturers, perceptions, EFL, writing


Written corrective feedback (WCF) in English as a foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) context is one of the controversial topics among researchers. Several researchers have debated and investigated its influences and effects on student learning, and different types of feedback have proven to be effective in improving writing skills. Although there is much research on this topic and in different EFL/ESL contexts, there are no studies on Iraqi Kurdistan Region lecturers’ perceptions of WCF and its types. It is essential to investigate this topic and contribute to this line of research, given that it appears that no studies have accounted for lecturers’ perspectives in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the perception of 30 EFL lecturers in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region in higher education institutions to understand their beliefs regarding WCF and the types of feedback used and found important to give to English language students. A questionnaire was used to collect data for this investigation that was delivered electronically. Statistical and qualitative analyses were conducted to provide a comprehensive understanding of the lecturers’ responses to the survey. Results showed that the majority of lecturers use WCF and believe it is useful for their students. Lecturers use several types of WCF depending on the context and their students’ level of proficiency. The study concludes that lecturers’ responses align to a large extent with the literature available, including their agreement on the effectiveness of WCF in enhancing students’ writing skills. The study also provides recommendations that can be useful for EFL lecturers and researchers in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region and other similar contexts to improve their practices related to WCF. The findings of this study can be used to inform teacher training programs in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region and contribute to improving the quality of feedback provided to English language students.