Journal of Kurdistani for Strategic Studies 2023-02-26T18:24:04+00:00 Assistant Professor Dr Rizgar Agha Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Kurdistani for Strategic Studies (JKSS) is a peer-review journal published in the Kurdish, Arabic, Persian and English languages, concerned with publishing the most important research and strategic studies in various fields of human sciences of originality, importance, effectiveness and influence in subspecialties, while being keen to adhere to deadlines, facilitate scientific communication, and valuable topics and its high outstanding results; It keeps pace with current developments, and provides everything that meets the aspirations of researchers in terms of scientific analyzes and interpretations inside and outside the region.</p> <p><a title="Journal Guidelines" href="">Journal Guidelines</a></p> <p><a href="">KISSR Kurdish Standards for Writing</a></p> <p><a href="">Regulation for Reviewers and Forms</a></p> <p><a href="">Reviewer Evaluation Forms</a></p> <p><a href="">Reviewer Verification Form in Kurdish</a></p> Hydrological Estimation for the Runoff of Qalachwalan Basin Using Hydrological Estimation for the Runoff of Qalachwalan Basin Using (SCS – CN) Method (2000 – 2020) 2023-02-26T17:27:15+00:00 Aram Dawood Abbas Khalel Karim Muhammed <p>The surface water is a reflection of the climatic and topographical conditions of the basin in the study area, and affects the estimation of the amount of runoff water on the surface inside the basin. It is also possible to measure the amount of running water in the basin and know the periods of increase, and water scarcity in this quantity, on the other hand, take advantage from water for all fields and uses. Qalachwalan basin is one of the water basins located at north of the city of Sulaymaniyah with an area of (876.1) km2, and all of its water sources are within the borders of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Due to unsteady rain and heavy precipitation in the recent years, therefore, it was necessary to conduct some researches to know the size and amount of runoff, besides, to see if it is possible to benefit from it for the development and investment of the study areas. Accordingly, Soil Conservation Service- Curve Number (SCS – CN) Method has been used used to estimate the depth and amount of the annual runoff. From this study it became clear to us that the area has seven uses )Bodies of water, dense forests, agricultural lands, grasslands, residential lands, barren lands, paved roads. Besides, it appeared that the greatest amount of runoff, which lies in the grassland equals to (588523320) m3, and the smallest amount with (4442480) m3 lies in the forest area. So, we discover that the total amount of the basin water reached about (700141140) m3. Finally, our data are very vital for the local government and stakeholders in the future to how to deal with this water basin especially with unsteady precipitations.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aram Dawood Abbas, Khalel Karim Muhammed Criticism of Contemporary Capitalist Education and Adorno’s Educational Vision as a Strong Alternative 2023-02-26T17:36:05+00:00 Twana Abdulrahman Abdullah Azad Abdullah Hama ا <p>Although criticism of culture and capitalist society forms a major part of Adorno’s work, his educational views and critical pedagogy make an important contribution to the philosophy of contemporary education, As the beginning of critical pedagogy go back to the Frankfurt School, specifically Adorno, the research analyzes Adorno’s criticism of contemporary capitalist education and strong alternatives from Adorno’s perspective, in different contexts, which is based on two questions, On the one hand, it explains how the instrumental reason and scientific played a role in human domination over nature since the beginning of the Enlightenment, and then criticizes this education how it played a role in the emergence of totalitarian and radical nationalist regimes that are at the forefront of human extermination is explained by the example of the Auschwitz essay, in this center both types of criticism are important for today’s education of humanity and the Kurdistan Region, because education in contemporary capitalist society has lost its essence and has become a fake education, half-education )Halbbildung(, The main question in the research is what are the strong alternative to pass this education? It is explained in detail, to educate an autonomous and critical individual.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Twana Abdulrahman Abdullah, Azad Abdullah Hama Political and Social Obstacles to the Nation-Building Process in Kurdistan Region 2023-02-26T17:43:00+00:00 Samih Sabr Sdiq Admin Faraj Sharif <p>The process of integrating people into the political, social, and cultural assimilation of individuals of a nation is known as nation-building, which has caused a number of obstacles for this extensive and multidimensional process. In order to return to the position and policies of the ruling elite and the institutions of the Kurdistan Region, the researcher depends on the qualitative approach in the current study, which focuses on the political and social barriers to the nation-building process in the Kurdistan Region. The key inquiry is therefore: What are the political and social impediments to the process of nation-building in the Kurdistan Region? In order to respond to this question, this research takes into account a number of factors, including the partisan clash and civil war between the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, as well as the absence of a comprehensive national strategy that united the nation before it resulted in the emergence of two utterly distinct administrations in the Kurdistan Region. On the other hand, Kurdistan’s nation-building efforts are hampered, according to the researcher, by the use of the two dialects policy, tribal culture, the fragility of civil society, the separation of the nation, and the predominance of foreign languages and cultures in private educational institutions. As a result of these barriers, there is a sharp divide between identity and common culture as well as a division between politics and culture. As a result, in order for the nation-building process in the Kurdistan Region to be successful, it must be kept as a unified political entity free from dual administration, the institution of forces, and the building of a unified language )standard language(, while also requiring private educational institutions to promote Kurdish culture and language in their curricula. It means that the Kurdish language and culture must be emphasized in the curricula of private educational institutions.&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Samih Sabr Sdiq, Admin Faraj Sharif Barriers to the development of interrelationships between Iraq and Turkey in the years (2014 – 2020) 2023-02-26T17:50:35+00:00 Xelan Awakalaey Salih Omer Issa <p>National security has become a fundamental factor in Turkey's foreign policy Problems between the two countries. Therefore, grief has become an influential factor in the emergence of a number of problems between the two countries. Therefore, the research is based on this argument. In order to prove the research's grievances about the main question, the research is based on this argument.&nbsp; In general, the problems of this reflect the nature of relations between Iraq and Turkey over a period of time. In general, the recent conflicts between Iraq and Turkey can be classified into three groups: First, the recent security problems between Iraq and Turkey can be divided into three groups: The first is the security problem, which is an important part of the presence of PKK fighters in Iraq and the security instability, which is an important part of the presence of PKK fighters in Iraq and the security deterioration of the region in general. The second is the lack of trust between the two countries in the region in general and inside Iraq in particular. These are some of the findings of the study and the crises in the region, especially in relation to the Arab Spring process. These are some of the findings of the study. We have received it.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Xelan Awakalaey, Salih Omer Issa The Role of Tourism Potential in Tourism Investment in Iraqi Kurdistan from (2007-2021) 2023-02-26T17:59:09+00:00 Dunay Mohamad Ali Aswad Qadir Ahmed <p>The research tagged with )Tourism components and their role in tourism investment in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq( aims to show the components of tourism investment and the volume of tourism investment in the Kurdistan Region and its role in the local economy. For the period )20072021-(, the research reached a set of conclusions, including that the Kurdistan Region possesses natural and human ingredients for tourism investment with the continuous increase in tourism demand for it due to the security, political and economic stability that characterizes the Kurdistan Region, with the exception of the years )2014 to 2016(. ( due to the security and political turmoil in Iraq as well as the internal financial crisis, and the research reached a set of recommendations that in turn lead to an increase in tourism investment and the size of its contribution to the local economy in the Kurdistan Region.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dunay Mohamad Ali, Aswad Qadir Ahmed Residential Structure in the City of Sulaymaniyah (A Study in the Geography of Cities) 2023-02-26T18:06:48+00:00 Bayan Ali Hussain <p>This study aims to delve into the housing structure in the city of Sulaymaniyah, and due to the lack of data on the housing structure about the city of Sulaymaniyah, the researcher conducted a questionnaire process by distributing 150 forms regarding information about the housing structure in the city and they were randomly distributed in order to collect information about the status of the unit The housing units in terms of the area of housing units, the ownership of housing units and the density of housing of all kinds. The results of the re- search were also compared with some of the studies that studied the housing structure in some Iraqi cities. The results of the study were also compared with some planning standards or with the standards of the Ministry of Housing and Construction in Iraq, and in terms of The per capita share of the residential use area in the city of Sulaymaniyah amounted to (28 m²) per person in 2022, which indicates the high density of residential use. The Urban Planning Commission in Iraq has set the standard (50 m²) as a share per person of the space allocated for housing, as for the urban situation For the housing unit, which is very important to know the nature and size of the housing problem, it was found in the study area and according to the data of the field study that 24 % of the housing units are unfit for habitation for many reasons, including the lack of potable water, the lack of electricity, the absence of a sewage network, or because of the age of construction or because of the location of the housing unit is not suitable.The study also reached several recommendations, the most important of which is to build a database in statistical centers for information and data related to housing in order to improve the level of housing and also to follow a housing policy in order to provide appropriate housing for families and provide facilities for investors to establish housing projects for people with limited income.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bayan Ali Hussain Measuring and Analyzing Selected Determinants of Public Debt in Iraq (2004-2019) 2023-02-26T18:11:32+00:00 Sazan Tahir Saeed Nyaz Najmalddin Noori <p>This study examines the measuring and analyzing selected determinants of public debt in Iraq from 2004 to 2019. It first reviews the major events that led to deterioration of the state’s capacity in preventing risky borrow- ings before the fall of the Ba’ath regime. It then turns to the period under study, and applies the Fully Modified OLS )FMOLS( cointegration framework based on data from the central bank of Iraq. The main results show that public debt has been caused by a mixture of factors including a small share of non-oil revenue, increasing operational expenditure at the expense of investment expenditure by the government, and the ISIS attack. It also touches on the link between sectarianism and public debt, and explores the burden of debt services on ac- cumulating public debt. It concludes that there is always a risk of increasing budget deficit; thus, a proper plan for managing public debt is vital to prevent a debt default.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sazan Tahir Saeed, Nyaz Najmalddin Noori Analyzing and Measuring the Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Economic Growth in Iraq for The Period (2004-2022) 2023-02-26T18:16:52+00:00 Haawre Latif Majee <p>This study investigated the exchange rate on Iraq’s economic growth situation. It examined the exchange rate’s effect on GDP, GNP, and INF. An ex-post facto research design was used to collect secondary data from the Central Bank of Iraq and macro trends Statistical Bulletin from 1 January 2004 to 30 November 2022. Hypoth- esis analysis used Least Squares. Exchange rates affect GDP, GNP, and INF. As a result, GDP can be used as an essential basis for economic development, and the GNP is a vital factor for economic infrastructure to change people’s living conditions. The exchange rate positively and significantly impacted GDP, and the analysis sug- gests a significant association between the independent and dependent variables, except for GNP. The study rec- ommends that Iraq’s currency authority manage exchange rates in response to the U.S. dollar to boost economic growth. Price stability can also boost Iraqi economic growth, boosting the dinar’s value.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Haawre Latif Majee Contribution to the Historical Geography of Erbil Province in the Second Millennium BC 2023-02-26T18:20:25+00:00 Kozad M. Ahmed <p>The historical geography of the Erbil Province in the second millennium BC remains obscure, although nu- merous inscriptional data –compared to other periods- exist. This article is an attempt to reconstruct the geo- graphical setting of the region in a specific short time, when king Šamšī-Adad I expanded his sway to the east Tigris region in the early second millennium BC. From this time we have data from Mari and Shemshara in which many GNs have been mentioned and this has been used as a basis to locate the cities, settlements, and routes mentioned.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kozad M. Ahmed Iraqi Neighbors’ Stance on Kurdish Independence Referendum of 2017: Iran and Turkey 2023-02-26T18:24:04+00:00 Hoshang Dara Hama Ameen <p>This paper is to evaluate the stance of both Iran and Turkey on the independence referendum of the Iraqi Kurds, 2017. This has been done by reviewing several articles that have, partly, highlighted the stance of Iraqi neighboring countries on the issue. It is, therefore, a survey-like study to find out why and how these states were against the step. While the Kurdish attempt for independence was backed by several historical reasons and realistic opportunities, it faced failure. Iran and Turkey, as two Iraqi neighbors that have a considerable number of Kurdish populations inside their borders, played a crucial role in defeating the step. The point here is that, globally, while Western powers were against Iran’s behavior, agreed with it in facing the referendum. Besides, regionally, while Iran and Turkey had lots of issues regarding the Syrian crisis, they agreed on taking joint steps against the referendum. This means that the regional powers and the international community agreed on protecting Iraqi territorial integrity by violating the Kurdish right to self-determination. The fact is that Iran and Turkey’s fear of spillover effects of the referendum on their population was a realistic one, to an extent. However, the unaddressed question is that nulling the referendum did not solve the Kurdish dilemma in the Middle East. Additionally, the referendum has become another issue to challenge the new world order which, in theory, is based on international law and principles; and, in practice, it is based on the interest of great powers. The Kurdish issue, in both theory and practice, is a problematique one for the international community. Here, the conflict of interests is between the stateless nations who want to become independent and the current states who want to protect their territorial integrity.</p> 2023-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hoshang Dara Hama Ameen