Journal of Kurdistani for Strategic Studies https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en <p>The Journal of Kurdistani for Strategic Studies (JKSS) is a peer-review journal published in the Kurdish, Arabic, Persian and English languages, concerned with publishing the most important research and strategic studies in various fields of human sciences of originality, importance, effectiveness and influence in subspecialties, while being keen to adhere to deadlines, facilitate scientific communication, and valuable topics and its high outstanding results; It keeps pace with current developments, and provides everything that meets the aspirations of researchers in terms of scientific analyzes and interpretations inside and outside the region.</p> en-US journals@kissr.edu.iq (Assistant Professor Dr Rizgar Agha) bryar.hassan@kissr.edu.iq (Assistant Professor Dr Bryar A. Hassan) Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Challenges of Investigative Journalism in Kurdistan Region and Developing Prospects Investigative Journalist’s Perspective as an Example https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/140 <p>In this study, the challenges of investigative journalism in Kurdistan region; and developing prospects investigative journalist’s perspective as examples. The study used a “descriptive” method and an “in-depth interview” approach to survey journalists as a direct sample, to take into account the influential variables and reach significant and important conclusions. For this purpose, are divided into three broad themes. The first theme is devoted to the presence and participation of grassroots journalists with many characteristics, such as: gender, qualifications, journalistic age, age of journalistic career, age of employment, place of work and membership of an organization or trade union. Another topic examines the situation of the media in three main issues: the level of development and obstacles to development, and finally the importance of this media model. In this article, the media is analyzed through its impact on the three branches of government (judicial, legislative, executive), along with the role of the judiciary in terms of the prosecutor general, and then details and statistics on the relationship between journalism in the Kurdistan Region Working age and membership in their respective unions and organizations were examined. The final topic is an assessment of the future prospects of investigetive media in Kurdistan, through three different issues that involve how to promote the model and the role of relevant institutions such as journalists unions, academic centers, prosecutors and other NGOs in promoting investigative media and, then identifying a signal such as optimism for the future of the underground media. The results showed that all the investigative journalists are male (%100 ), of whom (%66 .66 ) do not have academic degrees in the field of media. Also, %50 of the respondents believe that the development of grassroots media in the Kurdistan Region is moderate, but a significant percentage (%41 .7) considers it poor, which is due to political and financial obstacles, especially (%24 .53) believe that political obstacles in general. Political instability, outstanding issues between Erbil and Baghdad) are the main reasons for these obstacles, followed by financial and economic reasons (%17.6). However, the journalistic working environment in the Kurdistan Region is considered to be somewhat favorable for the development of grassroots media, according to journalists (%66 .7) who are not members of organizations and trade unions and the working age of the majority (%50) is between 10 -6 years . . . . The respondents (%38.96) believe that the existence and influence of the media is important because it monitors the spheres of power and plays the role of the fourth power. According to the role of the media in the Kurdistan Region, it is moderate for %50 and never for %41 .7, which can act as an observer over the judiciary, executive, legislative. Results about the role of all relevant institutions (mentioned above) are bad to varying degrees but high, which did not satisfy the journalists of the underground in their work. Furthermore, despite the limited data such as the number of interviewees, there is optimism to see a bright future for invetigative journalism and make a big difference. The recommendations are directed to the authorities, trade unions and relevant institutions to enthusiastically follow this model, such as allocating the necessary budget, facilitating the provision of information and encouraging women to enter this model and investigate the reasons for their absence.</p> Jwan Jalaladin Muhedden, Hersh Rasul Murad, Hoshyar Muzafar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Jwan Jalaladin Muhedden, Hersh Rasul Murad, Hoshyar Muzafar Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/140 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Phonetic Expression and its Role in Phonetic Changes and in The Installation of New Materials https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/141 <p>This paper consists five sections. The first section provides a general preview of language phonemes and some phonological conditions, it also deals with some phonemic cases in Kurdish language. As far as the second section is concerned, the elision and change of these sounds and their roles in phonemic assimilation and formation of new words are stated. The third section clarifies the influences of changing and elision of some sounds and their roles in the formation of simple words out of compound words. Similarly, section four explains the change and elision of sounds and their roles in forming simple words out of complex words. Finally, the role of assimilation of linguistic items in implying intended meaning in both speaking and writing is discussed. Consequently, a list of conclusions, resources, and abstracts in both English and Arabic are provided.</p> Aram Abdulwahid Aziz, Hoger Mahmud Faraj Copyright (c) 2022 Aram Abdulwahid Aziz, Hoger Mahmud Faraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/141 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Glass Ceiling and its Effect on Women Performance at Work: A Fifield Research on Women in Political Parties in Sulaimani https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/142 <p>Glass wall is one of the gender exclusions that face women at work, this emerged with the beginning of the industrial revolution and the mass wave of women going out of their houses to work market, the activities and getting involved in fields and areas that were seized by men for a long time. This research is an endeavour to answer the question of: does glass wall exist? If so what makes it be? How does glass wall affects the women performance at work? The aim of this research is to address the affect on women by glass wall at work, for this matter the researcher has taken 16 5 samples from the research society, which is a total of the girls and women working in the Kurdish political parties in Sulaymani city, the samples are taken randomly in order to implement the field procedures. After processing the sampling form, the research reached at these conclusions: most of the samples’ age group was (50-41 ), they are married and hold Bachelor’s degree, most of the samples stress that most of their roles have become a glass wall in front of them that hinders them to reach their goals and reach the peak of the pyramid of their occupations, regarding the aftereffect of the glass wall on the performance of women at work and reaching a political high position. Regarding the mechanism of women facing these hidden and made up barriers which is called glass wall most of the samples stress that the political parties must work to eradicate sexual harassment which is prevailing in the political parties and deeply disturbed women, this has pushed away women from political work. One of the most important suggestions is that women and girls must be encouraged to get involved more in the political arena via participating them in the awareness courses regarding political parties, even raising awareness of families regarding women roles in political work, so they won’t be obstacles in front of them.</p> Zhiya Abas Qader Copyright (c) 2022 Zhiya Abas Qader https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/142 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Achieving the Third Message in the Art of Placing by Muhammad Bin Adam Al-Rusta’i Al-Balki Al-Kurdi https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/143 <p>This research, which is in your hands, is an investigation and commentary on an ancient and valuable manuscript message in one of the sciences of the Arabic language, which is the science of placing, or the art of placing, as some call it. It was written and compiled by a scholar from the Kurdish and Islamic worlds of our nation, the famous scholar al-Nahrir in his time and Ibn his peers and the master in various arts, including the arts of language, the scholars: Muhammad ibn Adam al-Rusta’i al-Bali al-Kurdi) 11601160 AH 123123 7 AH corresponding to 1747 AD 182121 AD. The situation (and he divided it into a precise and comprehensive division into an introduction and six chapters with a conclusion, as he himself said, may God have mercy on him, in the beginning of his message) The third message in the art of placing and it contains an introduction, chapters and conclusion...) This science that seeks to explain the conditions of the Arabic word in terms of situation and its division To various and different sections of personal, specific, general, and specific, in the case of placing subjects and bodies, and so on, in which it was said: The position of the knowledge of the situation is high, so know by it the position of individuals and sentences... And the compiler defined this science and explained its subject, and purpose. As for the content of the chapters, as you can find in the letter, he mentioned, may God have mercy on him, in the first chapter: the division of the situation and the second chapter in the division of the subject, and the third chapter in a statement that the subject in any situation is a subject, and the fourth chapter It is possible to pay attention to the foregoing, and the fifth chapter contains the etymology, synonyms, and associations, and the sixth and last chapter mentions the truth and the metaphor, and after the chapters he wrote a supplement to the crisis and mentioned things in which he cannot do without mentioning them in the Al-Mulqam. And he used all of these terms that we mentioned above from an introduction, chapters, conclusion and others in the common sense in his time, which differ from our time and that this message as we saw it as a precious pearl in its chapter, and the author came in it with information, comments, suggestions and opinions, and touched on the benefits and features of the indispensable His message is useful information in a concise and useful way, and cites what he mentioned.</p> Khdir Abdullah Khdir Copyright (c) 2022 Khdir Abdullah Khdir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/143 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Oil Price Change on the Public Budget and Balance of Payments in Iraq During the Period (1990-2021) https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/144 <p>Iraq is one of those countries that relies heavily on oil income to mobilize funds and maintain external balance. Oil’s increase or fall has a direct impact on Iraq’s public budget and balance of payments, as well as the country’s development. This study intends to explain how to calculate the impact of changing oil prices on Iraq’s Public budget and balance of payments over time (19902021-). The research relied on a descriptive and analytical methodology based on time series data, as well as the employment of (FMOLS, DOLS) and (OLS) approaches, to achieve this purpose. Finally, the study came to several conclusions, including: Despite the wars and political and security instability, oil prices had a positive impact on both the general budget and the balance of payments in Iraq, as the rise in oil prices contributed positively to the general budget and balance of payments during the period (1990202-), and as a result, Iraq needs to work on economic diversification and diversify its sources of revenue.</p> Soran Ali Mahmood, Mardin Mahsum Faraj Copyright (c) 2022 Soran Ali Mahmood, Mardin Mahsum Faraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/144 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth in Iraq (2004-2020) https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/145 <p>This study aims to evaluate monetary policy with measuring its effects on the economic growth in during (2004-2020). To achieve this goal, the study relies on the descriptive and analytical approach using time series data, and by applying the (ARDL) method, and it has reached several conclusions. The most important one is that there is a positive relationship between the money supply (M2) and economic growth. Also, there is a positive but weak relationship between the interest rate and economic growth, while a negative impact through the interest rate on the growth have been found. The study sheds light on the concerns about the instability of the monetary system as a result of fluctuations in oil revenues and the value of the US dollar. Accordingly, it is necessary to enhance the credibility of the Central Bank and conduct the integration and alignment of monetary policy with other economic k to avoid complete dependence on oil ذ policies such as fiscal policy, trade policy and others, and wor revenues.</p> Nzar Hamasdiq Marf, Nyaz Najmadin Noori Copyright (c) 2022 Nzar Hamasdiq Marf, Nyaz Najmadin Noori https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/145 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Historical Overview of the Evolution of the Oil Pricing Stages for the Period (1859-2020) https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/146 <p>Oil as an international strategic commodity, its prices have gone through many changes and developments historically in the oil markets since the beginning of its circulation until now, which has been reflected on the economic, political and social conditions...etc. in the countries of the world. Therefore, countries are interested in how to price it in international markets. This research deals with a theoretical analysis of the historical development of oil prices and the stages of its pricing for the period 18592020- AD. The research aims to show the role of international oil companies and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in its pricing, and the researchers reached many results, the most important of which are: that oil prices have undergone many changes since the beginning until now And the pricing process of crude oil in its early stages depended on the declared prices due to the complete control of the international oil companies over the oil industry Oil prices and how they are priced have taken on a monopolistic character, while the producing countries did not have any role in determining its prices until the beginning of the seventies of the last century as a result of its monopoly by the major international oil companies. The establishment of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and its interference in the oil market helped reduction the dominance of the international oil companies that monopolize the oil market.</p> Nabaz Hamarashid Omer, Saud Ghali Sabr Copyright (c) 2022 Nabaz Hamarashid Omer, Suad Ghali Sabr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/146 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Military Expenditures on Economic Growth in Iraq: An Econometric Study (2005-2020) https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/147 <p>Military expenditures in Iraq constitute a large proportion of public expenditures and are considered one of the factors of the financial deficit. However, they did not contribute positively to economic growth, which caused the misallocation of economic resources and the failure to exploit them in an efficient manner. The basic hypothesis of the study is that there is an inverse relationship between military expenditures and the economic growth in Iraq, and in order to achieve the aim of the study and verify its hypothesis the standard method of practical aspect using the model of ARDL is adopted, taking military expenditures, investment expenditures, the war of ISIS as independent variables, and economic growth as a dependent variable. The study has reached several important conclusions, most notably is the existence of a reverse relationship between military expenditures and economic growth as an increase in military expenditures by 1 percent leads to a reduction in GDP by (- 0.13- percent). In light of this, several recommendations have been made. The most important of which is the need to reduce military operational expenditures by reducing military forces, especially informal forces (military militias) as well as reducing corruption in the military sector, which drains large amounts of government budget.</p> Shnya Kamal Mawlood, Ahmed Ismael Qader Copyright (c) 2022 Shnya Kamal Mawlood, Ahmed Ismael Qader https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/147 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring and Analyzing the Impact of Population Growth on The Labor Force and Unemployment in Iraq During the Period (1990 - 2020) https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/148 <p>The relationship between population growth and the labor force has become of great importance, as it affects development, because the high population growth that is accompanied by an increase in the numbers of the human force, which contributes to the high rate of unemployment as well as impeding the process of economic and social development, and from this point of view revolves the subject of the current study about Population growth and its impact on the labor force and unemployment. To achieve this, the standard analytical method was relied on using a set of models (CONNT INTEGER DATA, FMOLS), and in the end, a conclusion was reached, which is that population growth has a negative impact on the labor force and unemployment. Accordingly, it is necessary for the government and the concerned authorities to pay great attention to the issue of high population growth and to limit it.</p> Sazan Amir Raouf Copyright (c) 2022 Sazan Amir Raouf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/148 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Management Strategies, Forecasting Methods and Expert System within Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: An Applied Study In Fakir Company https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/149 <p>The purpose of the current study is to develop an idea for the establishment of a database as an expert system which could support the order decisions of managers of retail shops in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. To understand the theoretical underpinnings of smart systems and the accumulation of knowledge, much of the previous research on the topic has been reviewed. The data were collected from different retail stores that had been selling Fakir Products. To analyze the data, researchers developed basic forecasting methods, which mainly included moving average, weighted moving average, exponential smoothing, and exponential smoothing with trend adjustment. The results showed that methods were successful only in a few cases while the majorities were not. The reasons for the emergence of the current study results are due to firstly; the number of data was very limited with the models failed to develop a path to follow. Secondly, the monthly sales in the investigated area were limited, thereby; the average absolute error rate was significantly affected by a single error.</p> Najih Samin Ahme, Tebin Burhan Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Najih Samin Ahme, Tebin Burhan Mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jkss.kissr.edu.iq/index.php/en/article/view/149 Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000